According to various organisations (the National Science Foundation,[23] NASA,[24] the University of California, San Diego,[25] the Russian State Museum of the Arctic and Antarctic,[26] among others),[27][28] ships captained by three men sighted Antarctica or its ice shelf in 1820: Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (a captain in the Imperial Russian Navy), Edward Bransfield (a captain in the Royal Navy), and Nathaniel Palmer (a sealer from Stonington, Connecticut). This list contains: Sovereign states (country names in bold), consisting of: . The common misconception that the territories claimed by various sovereign nations in Antarctica are independent countries is not correct. By 1959, 12 countries came together to create the 1959 Antarctica Treaty: Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, the French Republic, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, the Union of South Africa, the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States. Antarctica is the coldest continent in the world, completely covered with ice. The frozen surface of the lake shares similarities with Jupiter's moon Europa. There are a number of rivers and lakes in Antarctica, the longest river being the Onyx. New claims on Antarctica have been suspended since 1959, although in 2015 Norway formally defined Queen Maud Land as including the unclaimed area between it and the South Pole. how many countries in antarctica is one of the most frequently asked questions. 2. Antarctic fisheries in 1998–99 (1 July – 30 June) reported landing 119,898 tonnes legally. The Polar Geospatial Center uses geospatial and remote sensing technology to provide mapping services to American federally funded research teams. Antarctica covers more than 14 million km2 (5,400,000 sq mi),[1] making it the fifth-largest continent, about 1.3 times as large as Europe. As you know, blogging changed my life. All told, there are as many as 45 year-round stations and 30 summer stations (field stations). ", Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, "The Foreign Secretary has announced that the southern part of British Antarctic Territory has been named Queen Elizabeth Land", "Argentina angry after Antarctic territory named after Queen", "Final Report, 30th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting", "2015–2016 Tourists by Nationality Total", "The World's Loneliest ATM is in Antarctica", "Private Issues – The Antarctica Issues and the NORFED Issues", "Adelie Penguins thriving amid Antarctica's melting ice", "NASA and NOAA Announce Ozone Hole is a Double Record Breaker", "Polar Geospatial Center Releases New Application with High-Res Satellite Imagery", "East Antarctic deglaciation and the link to global cooling during the Quaternary: evidence from glacial geomorphology and 10Be surface exposure dating of the Sør Rondane Mountains, Dronning Maud Land", "Big Bang in Antarctica—Killer Crater Found Under Ice", "Antarctic scientists find 18 kg meteorite", "Regional changes in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice", "All About Sea Ice: Characteristics: Arctic vs. Antarctic", "Accelerated ice discharge from the Antarctic Peninsula following the collapse of Larsen B ice shelf", "Facts / Vital signs / Ice Sheets / Antarctica Mass Variation Since 2002", "A Reconciled Estimate of Ice-Sheet Mass Balance", "Mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet from 1992 to 2017", "Mass gains of the Antarctic ice sheet exceed losses", "Study concludes Antarctica is gaining ice, rather than losing it", "A 40-y record reveals gradual Antarctic sea ice increases followed by decreases at rates far exceeding the rates seen in the Arctic", "Recent Antarctic ice mass loss from radar interferometry and regional climate modelling", A Reconciled Estimate of Ice-Sheet Mass Balance, "Warming of the Antarctic ice-sheet surface since the 1957 International Geophysical Year", "Attribution of polar warming to human influence", "Modelling Circumpolar Deep Water intrusions on the Amundsen Sea continental shelf, Antarctica", "Widespread acceleration of tidewater glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula", "Antarctic Ice Shelf Collapse Blamed on More Than Climate Change", "Ice Bridge Holding Antarctic Shelf in Place Shatters", "Antarctica appears to have broken a heat record", "Non-annular atmospheric circulation change induced by stratospheric ozone depletion and its role in the recent increase of Antarctic sea ice extent", British Services Antarctic Expedition 2012, Antarctica and New Zealand (NZHistory.net.nz), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Antarctica&oldid=999319496, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Geographical articles missing image alternative text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Ice stream/outlet glacier (ice front or ice wall), 044°38′E to 136°11′E, and 142°02′E to 160°00′E, 80°00′W to 74°00′W claimed by Chile (1940), 74°00′W to 53°00′W claimed by Chile (1940) and Argentina (1943), 53°00′W to 25°00′W claimed by Argentina (1943), 90°00′W to 74°00′W claimed by the United Kingdom (1908), 74°00′W to 53°00′W claimed by the United Kingdom (1908) and Argentina (1943), 74°00′W to 53°00′W claimed by the United Kingdom (1908) and Chile (1940), 53°00′W to 25°00′W claimed by the United Kingdom (1908), Listen to Ernest Shackleton describing his 1908, This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 16:02. [178], There is a large area of low ozone concentration or "ozone hole" over Antarctica. Instead of inventing a new name to replace it, they took the name Australia from the south polar continent, leaving it nameless for some eighty years. It used to be ice-free until about 34 million years ago, when it became covered with ice. If life is discovered in Lake Vostok, it would strengthen the argument for the possibility of life on Europa. The cooling of Antarctica occurred stepwise, as the continental spread changed the oceanic currents from longitudinal equator-to-pole temperature-equalising currents to latitudinal currents that preserved and accentuated latitude temperature differences. [73], Antarctica is the coldest of Earth's continents. The most common system used varies from country to country. In the dry valleys, the same effect occurs over a rock base, leading to a desiccated landscape.[53]. [39] One month later, the doomed Scott Expedition reached the pole. Large animals such as some cetaceans and birds make the round trip annually. The emperor penguin is the only penguin that breeds during the winter in Antarctica; it and the Adélie penguin breed farther south than any other penguin. [107], The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (also known as the Environmental Protocol or Madrid Protocol) came into force in 1998, and is the main instrument concerned with conservation and management of biodiversity in Antarctica. Astrophysicists at Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station study the celestial dome and cosmic microwave background radiation. United Kingdom (British Antarctic Territory), Norway (Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land), Australia (Australian Antarctic Territory). East Antarctica is largely covered by the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. In coastal areas such as Shackleton Range and Victoria Land some faulting has occurred. The sheet has been of recent concern because of the small possibility of its collapse. I left Ireland broke, with no plan, with just a one-way ticket to Thailand and no money. The areas shown as Australia's and New Zealand's claims were British territory until they were handed over following the countries' independence. [59], In September 2018, researchers at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency released a high resolution terrain map (detail down to the size of a car, and less in some areas) of Antarctica, named the "Reference Elevation Model of Antarctica" (REMA).[60]. On 18 December 2012, the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office named a previously unnamed area Queen Elizabeth Land in tribute to Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee. The United Kingdom was the first to lay territorial claims to Antarctica in the early 1800s. [126], Other countries participating as members of the Antarctic Treaty have a territorial interest in Antarctica, but the provisions of the Treaty do not allow them to make their claims while it is in force. Temperatures reach a minimum of between −80 °C (−112 °F) and −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) in the interior in winter and reach a maximum of between 5 °C (41 °F) and 15 °C (59 °F) near the coast in summer. The continents extremes zoomschool enchanted learning. [49] For this crossing, Ousland also holds the record for the fastest unsupported journey to the South Pole, taking just 34 days. Many countries have scientific research stations on Antarctica. The treaty was signed by twelve countries including the Soviet Union (and later Russia), the United Kingdom, Argentina, Chile, Australia, and the United States. Motion of the ice sheet tends to concentrate the meteorites at blocking locations such as mountain ranges, with wind erosion bringing them to the surface after centuries beneath accumulated snowfall. He sailed along a huge wall of ice that was later named the Ross Ice Shelf. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by icethat averages 1.9 … Antarctica is the highest, driest, coldest, windiest and brightest of the seven continents. [54] In 2004, a potentially active underwater volcano was found in the Antarctic Peninsula by American and Canadian researchers. [133][134][135] As of 2015, there are two Wells Fargo ATMs in Antarctica.[136]. Vegetation, where it occurs, is tundra. [165] There is evidence from one study that Antarctica is warming as a result of human carbon dioxide emissions,[166] but this remains ambiguous. Antarctica was not always cold, dry, and covered in ice sheets. The elapsed time since fall, or terrestrial residence age, of a meteorite represents more information that might be useful in environmental studies of Antarctic ice sheets. [36] Mercator Cooper landed in East Antarctica on 26 January 1853.[37]. [113] It set aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, established freedom of scientific investigation and environmental protection, and banned military activity on Antarctica. Satellite images from 25 years ago seemingly show it. If found, these resilient creatures could further bolster the argument for extraterrestrial life in extremely cold, methane-rich environments. Africa separated from Antarctica in the Jurassic, around 160 Ma, followed by the Indian subcontinent in the early Cretaceous (about 125 Ma). Ammonites were common in the seas around Antarctica, and dinosaurs were also present, though only three Antarctic dinosaur genera (Cryolophosaurus and Glacialisaurus, from the Hanson Formation,[63] and Antarctopelta) have been described to date. Antarctica has no indigenous human inhabitants, but always has seasonal staff drawn from the countries collectively bound by the treaty. [159], A satellite record revealed that the overall increase in Antarctic sea ice extents reversed in 2014, with rapid rates of decrease in 2014–2017 reducing the Antarctic sea ice extents to their lowest values in the 40-y record. [47], In the southern hemisphere summer of 1996–97 the Norwegian explorer Børge Ousland became the first human to cross Antarctica alone from coast to coast. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km (1.2 mi; 6,200 ft) in thickness,[5] which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula. It is roughly the size of the United States and Mexico combined and is almost completely covered by a layer of ice that averages more than one mile in thickness, but is nearly three miles thick in places. Some stations use the time zone of the country that operates or supplies them, others observe the local time of countries … The Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting is advised on environmental and conservation issues in Antarctica by the Committee for Environmental Protection. This is partly offset by autumn cooling in East Antarctica. There is no universally accepted answer as to how many countries in the world there actually are. It was once believed that the lake had been sealed off for 500,000 to one million years, but a recent survey suggests that, every so often, there are large flows of water from one lake to another. Most of these meteorites have fallen onto the ice sheet in the last million years. However, belief in the existence of a Terra Australis—a vast continent in the far south of the globe to "balance" the northern lands of Europe, Asia and North Africa—had prevailed since the times of Ptolemy in the 1st century AD. [31][32] The first recorded and confirmed landing was at Cape Adair in 1895 (by the Norwegian-Swedish whaling ship Antarctic). Precipitation is low (most of Antarctica is a desert) and almost always in the form of snow, which accumulates and forms a giant ice sheet which covers the land. More surprising are small forms of life such as sea cucumbers and free-swimming snails found in both polar oceans. Several research stations have been established around the continent by various countries for scientific and research purposes. [160], East Antarctica is a cold region with a ground base above sea level and occupies most of the continent. Click - https://bit.ly/2GcnL6T How many countries in Antarctica. [106] Bacteria have been found living in the cold and dark as deep as 800 m (0.50 mi; 2,600 ft) under the ice. Endemic Antarctic fungi also include certain dung-inhabiting species which have had to evolve in response to the double challenge of extreme cold while growing on dung, and the need to survive passage through the gut of warm-blooded animals. [112] Antarctica's status is regulated by the 1959 Antarctic Treaty and other related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System. In January 2015, reports emerged of a 2-kilometre (1.2 mi) circular structure, supposedly a meteorite crater, on the surface snow of King Baudouin Ice Shelf. Robertson Land, Wilkes Land, and Victoria Land. [158] However, one critic, Eric Rignot of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, states that this outlying study's findings "are at odds with all other independent methods: re-analysis, gravity measurements, mass budget method, and other groups using the same data" and appears to arrive at more precise values than current technology and mathematical approaches would permit. [142], In 2007 The Polar Geospatial Center was founded. New types of meteorites and rare meteorites have been found. [171] Between 28 February and 8 March 2008, about 570 km2 (220 sq mi) of ice from the Wilkins Ice Shelf on the southwest part of the peninsula collapsed, putting the remaining 15,000 km2 (5,800 sq mi) of the ice shelf at risk. [167] The amount of surface warming in West Antarctica, while large, has not led to appreciable melting at the surface, and is not directly affecting the West Antarctic Ice Sheet's contribution to sea level. These stations include Esperanza, McMurdo, Cámara, Neumayer II and III, and Orcadas, to name only a few. Costing $16.3 million, the prefabricated station, which is part of the International Polar Year, was shipped to the South Pole from Belgium by the end of 2008 to monitor the health of the polar regions. [62] The Antarctic Peninsula was formed by uplift and metamorphism of sea bed sediments during the late Paleozoic and the early Mesozoic eras. [99], About 1,150 species of fungi have been recorded from Antarctica, of which about 750 are non-lichen-forming and 400 are lichen-forming. [16] Eventually Antarctica was adopted as the continental name in the 1890s—the first use of the name is attributed to the Scottish cartographer John George Bartholomew. With the ban of CFCs in the Montreal Protocol of 1989, climate projections indicate that the ozone layer will return to 1980 levels between 2050 and 2070. [155] The same group's 2018 systematic review study estimated that ice loss across the entire continent was 43 gigatonnes per year on average during the period from 1992 to 2002 but has accelerated to an average of 220 gigatonnes per year during the five years from 2012 to 2017. `` AQ '' is assigned to the sub-Antarctic islands some species of exist! 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