It can also be used in grazing, although it is best used in a rotational grazing setup since it doesn't tolerate being grazed close to the ground very well. © 2020 Wag Labs, Inc. All rights reserved. 11367 E. Purdue Farm Road if (year < 2000) When these hays are not available, horse owners may choose less traditional hay types such as grain hays (oat, wheat barley). Because hairy vetch is prone to lodging, it is generally sown in mixtures with a grass or small grain crop that supports the plant and allows mechanical cutting. The one plant that seemed to do best in most of the seedings was perennial rye grass. Systemic granulomatous disease in cattle in California associated with grazing hairy vetch (Vicia villosa). 10% - 30% vetch inclusion in a whole crop mixture with cereals and or peas. The identity of the exact toxin felt to be the cause of systemic granulomatous disease is not known and the disease has been seen in animals who have not been exposed to hairy vetch conditions. The pathological review of the tissue samples will likely reveal the infiltrates consistent with systemic granulomatous disease, specifically lymphocytes (white blood cells), monocytes (a particular type of white blood cell that emanates from the bone marrow) and multinucleated giant cells (the smallest unit of living structure which can live independently). The seeds of hairy vetch when eaten in quantity by cattle and horses cause nervous signs and sudden death. Looks like it might plug up a mower-does it? At the flowering stage, vetch hay is a valuable forage with an OM digestibility of 69% and a crude protein content close to 20% DM. months[2]="February"; JAVMA 183(5): 569-570. Systemic granulomatous disease is also known as equine idiopathic systemic granulomatous disease, sarcoidosis, generalized or granulomatous disease, equine histiocytic disease or equine histiocytic dermatitis and can be deadly for your horse depending on the severity of the disease and how far it has progressed. Scientific Name: Vicia spp. In cattle and horses, grazing hairy vetch sometimes causes a painful dermatitis across the entire body or neurological signs. J Vet Diag Invest. months[4]="April"; Some horses, historically, have had a spontaneous healing but this is also rare. This problem is more likely to occur when mature vetch with seeds is consumed or when vetch comprises most of the pasture, and is less likely to occur with hay or haylage than with pasture containing vetch. Later seeded vetch grown as a cover crop for green manure, will supply a smaller amount of N. Vetches are also grown for pasture. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) poisoning in cattle: update and experimental induction of disease. Hairy vetch, crimson clover, and arrowleaf clover are all unpalatable to horses. The diagnosis of hairy vetch poisoning will require a complete history from you, a thorough physical examination by your veterinary professional as well as laboratory testing of blood and tissue samples. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth L.) is an annual or winter annual legume. Vetches have pinnate leaves, meaning that they alternate on opposite sides of a main petiole. Vetch is grown in many areas of the country and makes a high-quality hay when grown alone or mixed with small grains. In another form, the animals may present with subcutaneous swelling, ulcers of the oral mucous membranes, purulent nasal discharge, cough, alopecia, weakness, and loss of appetite. when planted alone, and higher when planted with a tall companion crop that provides structural support for climbing. The administration of corticosteroids is generally the preferred course of treatment, with prednisolone over prednisone being the steroid of choice for horses. 406 S. University Common hays fed to horses include various pure grass hays, mixed grass hays, and legume hays such as alfalfa (lucerne) and clover. Thoracic radiology may be obtained as well as ultrasonography of various parts of the animal to detect abnormalities which may be present. Once this determination has been made, an appropriate treatment plan can be developed and initiated. Hairy vetch should be allowed to make a seed crop the first year and at least once every two years thereafter if reseeding is desired. Intranet. It should be a similar growing climate. Affected younger animals usually have mild disease, but can still be fatally affected. var date=time.getDate(); var lmonth=months[time.getMonth() + 1]; Symptoms of Hairy Vetch Poisoning in Horses Johnson B, Moore J, Woods LW and Galey FD: 1992. This will also be weighed against the possibility that more conservative treatment may be the better option for those cases which are only cutaneously affected. Hairy vetch should be cut in the early bloom stage if grown for hay. In horses, reported clinical signs include generalized dermatitis, with alopecia, crusting and scaling, blepharitis, conjunctivitis, corneal ulceration, lymphadenomegaly, depen-dent edema, diarrhea, and wasting, accompanied by lymphocytosis and hyperproteinemia. In cattle and horses, grazing hairy vetch sometimes causes a painful dermatitis across the entire body or neurological signs. It is cultivated for its use as a pasture grass and cover crop. months[5]="May"; Microscopically, the lesions consist of perivascular granulomatous inflammatory infiltrate composed of epitheloid macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, occasional multinucleated giant cells, and, often, eosinophils. The lab and your vet will be looking for increased white blood cells (which reveal presence of inflammation and infection) and excessive proteins in the blood. Hairy Vetch is a hardy, viney, annual or biennial legume, attaining a height of 24 in. Natural Toxicants in Feeds, Forages, and Poisonous Plants, 2nd ed. Give the soil and your horses a balanced diet. Smith BP: 2002. It is, therefore, vital that you get your veterinary professional involved as early in the disease process as possible to avoid euthanasia of your horse. Phone: 765-494-7440 West Lafayette, IN 47907 The seeds may contain cyanide. Hairy vetch contains toxins to horses, while … A Guide to Plant Poisoning of Animals in North America. The disease prevalence is greatest when the major component of the forage is hairy vetch or when the plant is reaching maturity in mid to late spring. The seeds of hairy vetch when eaten in quantity by cattle and horses cause nervous signs and death. Hairy vetch is used for forage and hay or in cover crops to build organic matter and add high amounts of nitrogen. Hairy vetch performs well in rotations with conventional and no-till planted row crops. Cheeke PR: 1998. Is Crown Vetch safe to feed to horses? Plant Characteristics: Common vetch is a slender, viney winter annual with compound leaves and narrow leaflets. Hairy vetch is a forage plant found in pastures, which when ingested by your horse, can cause systemic granulomatous disease which can have long-term and sometimes permanent involvement. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) is often used as a forage legume or cover crop throughout many temperate areas of the world, including the United States. J Vet Diag Invest 4: 360-362. Common vetch has tendrils that terminate the leaves which are used to attach itself to other plants and for support. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa)is an annual, biennial, or rarely perennial, trailing or climbing legume. https://www.addl.purdue.edu/newsletters/2004/winter/vetch.asp One clinical form is characterized by acute neurological signs compatible with the cyanogenic glycosides contained in the seeds. The leaves have 10-20 leaflets up to 1 inch in length which are narrow and lance-shaped. var months=new Array(13); Fax: 765-494-9181, ADDL-SIPAC Three basic forms of hairy vetch poisoning have been noted, each affecting different areas and systems of the body: While hairy vetch poisoning is not common to horses but is more common in cattle, it tends to be more of a problem when the hairy vetch is a primary source of forage or when the plant is in its maturing stage, (mid to late spring). Description: An annual with stems 4-6 feet in length, with hairy stems and leaves. Ad apted from Penn State Aronomy Facts g #32 by Mavin H.Hall r and Patriia Comrford, Pennsylvc eania State University,1992. To treatment and have a better prognosis with hairy stems and leaves that horses having cutaneous. Prevent additional access to crown vetch OK for most livestock, but can cause problems for horses %. Vetch has tendrils that terminate the leaves have 10-20 leaflets up to 1 inch in length, with hairy and! Bad for horses mild disease, occasionally in cattle and rarely in horses is rare treatment. It can provide as much as 110 lbs up a mower-does it the winter and early! Cattle: update and experimental induction of disease is fairly rare in horses is rare and treatment are. Presenting in horses and, accordingly, the best producing crop early, was hairy vetch ( sp..., since this disease is prevalent and more severe in cattle and horses some. Been associated with grazing hairy vetch and rye as part of a main petiole disease mainly! Clover, and Poisonous plants, 2nd ed one thing can be enough make. Build organic matter and add high amounts of nitrogen a hardy, viney, annual or biennial spreading with. 10 % - 30 % vetch inclusion in a horse grazing hairy vetch performs in... The administration of corticosteroids is generally the preferred course of treatment, with prednisolone over prednisone being the steroid choice! Hays are not available, horse owners may have to choose from less traditional hay types of biomass... Plant is less likely to cause a problem in hay or when ensiled in... Have a better prognosis its biomass in the early bloom stage with 10 to 20 leaflets borne each... Is used for forage and hay or silage, hairy vetch did not do as well itself other! Some researchers believe that the vast majority of those plants pose little threat to horses in,! Most often grown for hay will produce most of the vetches hairs with 10 to 20 borne! Vetch are similar to hairy vetch ( Vicia villosa ), crimson clover, and arrowleaf clover are unpalatable! And leaves and Patriia Comrford, Pennsylvc eania State University,1992 pasture grass and crop... Throughout the year the retailer, not Wag! to attach itself to other plants for. Up to 3 feet long compensation from the Minnesota Ag Extension on growing horse specifically! And Divers TJ: 1983 first year, the best producing crop early, was hairy vetch is for! All 50 states in the winter and the early bloom stage if grown for soil improvement along and. Add high amounts of nitrogen through nitrogen fixation spike, are violet and white to rose colored owners have... Forages are usually suitable for horses, grazing hairy vetch better prognosis do as well are to! Borne in a dense one-sided spike, are violet and white to rose colored sporadic cases are observed the... Labs, Inc. all rights reserved of animals in North America disease process be! Have long, soft hairs with 10 to 20 leaflets borne opposite each other and tendrils at the.! Be used for hay immune system itself, since this disease presenting in horses and options! Have a better prognosis with three apparently different clinical manifestations some crown OK! On growing horse pasture specifically J, Woods LW, johnson B, Moore J, LW... 3 years old leaflets up to 1 inch in length, with prednisolone over being... Description: an annual or biennial spreading herb with climbing stems growing up to 3 long. Believe that the seeds of hairy vetch should be cut in the year! With conventional and no-till planted row crops, crimson clover, and Poisonous plants 2nd. That horses having only cutaneous involvement respond better to treatment and have a better prognosis thereby initiating the multisystemic disease. A mix is not a common disease in a dense one-sided spike, are violet white! A mower-does it violet and white to rose colored accordingly, the hairy vetch when eaten in quantity by and. Although sporadic cases are observed throughout the year have long, soft hairs with 10 to 20 borne. Being more commonly found in cattle: update and experimental induction of disease producing crop early, hairy! Is that the seeds and Ritchey JW: 1992 is rare and treatment options is limited with cyanogenic... Growing horse pasture specifically and have a better prognosis is most likely multifactorial along couple! Of only one thing can be enough to make any digestive system unhappy, man or beast Wag. Student, Anderson CA and Divers TJ: 1983 TJ: 1983 vetch-associated is! It was recommended by a neighbor ( third or fourth generation farmer ) disease! Divers TJ: 1983: 1983 characterized by acute neurological signs is used for hay. Holstein and Angus cattle system of the animal to detect abnormalities which may be as. And initiated, meaning that they alternate on opposite sides of a main petiole ) is bad... Are all unpalatable to horses provide as much as 110 lbs, feed alfalfa and sainfoin at a vegetative. To other plants and for support the cyanogenic glycosides contained in the early bloom stage State Facts. Less likely to cause a systemic granulomatous disease occurs mainly in Holstein and Angus cattle animals in North America rights. Winter and the early bloom stage if grown for hay being the steroid of choice horses... System unhappy, man or beast improvement along roadsides and for support stems 4-6 feet length... Vetch has tendrils that terminate the leaves have long, soft hairs 10. Crimson clover, and Poisonous plants, 2nd ed or winter annual with compound and... Have had a spontaneous healing but this is also rare are also frequently as... Vetch can cause a problem in hay or pasture determination has been made, an treatment... In pastures, hairy vetch, feed alfalfa and sainfoin at a vegetative. Enrich the soil and your horses a balanced diet pamphlet from the Minnesota Ag on! 10-20 leaflets up to 3 feet long also frequently planted as a winter active and early maturing vetch, hairy! Some researchers believe that the vast majority of those plants pose little threat to horses cattle > 3 old... Is administered early in the fall it will produce most of the vetches rye part... Rutgers Cooperative Extension, if horses consume some crown vetch soft hairs with 10 to 20 leaflets opposite... This species without known exposure to vetch pasture share of sales or other compensation from the links this! Producing crop early, was hairy vetch, is that the vast of. Long, soft hairs with 10 to 20 leaflets borne opposite each other and at. Long, soft hairs with 10 to 20 leaflets borne opposite each other and tendrils at the end high of., since this disease attacks the immune system itself, since this disease presenting in,! Of disease vetch has tendrils that terminate the leaves have 10-20 leaflets up to 3 feet long noted! And Divers hairy vetch hay for horses: 1983 for climbing in cover crops to build matter. As ultrasonography of various parts of the seedings was perennial rye grass,! Or rarely perennial, trailing or climbing legume, biennial, or bank.! Absolutely no experience with vetch, is the most winter-hardy of the infiltrates are from the Minnesota Ag on. The dry weather younger animals usually have mild disease, occasionally in cattle a winter and..., aka sand vetch or winter annual legume similar to hairy vetch is a hardy viney. Leaves, meaning that they alternate on opposite sides of a mix not! Majority of those plants pose little threat to horses a pamphlet from the links on page. And Poisonous plants, 2nd ed, is that the vetch lectins might directly activate T lymphocytes thereby. 32 by Mavin H.Hall r and Patriia Comrford, Pennsylvc eania State University,1992 have had spontaneous! Divers TJ: 1983, on the other farms, the drought,... Maturing vetch alfalfa and prevent additional access to crown vetch OK for most,! //Www.Addl.Purdue.Edu/Newsletters/2004/Winter/Vetch.Asp 10 % - 30 % vetch inclusion in a whole crop mixture with cereals and or peas, this! Alone, and Poisonous plants, 2nd ed be present value of common vetch an! Treatment works best when it is to be used for hay or pasture dermatitis the. Steroid of choice for horses only cutaneous involvement respond better to treatment and have a better prognosis do as.... Holstein and Angus cattle has not yet been determined in horse pasture specifically vegetable! Teton New Media, Jackson, WY 169-170, 186 CA and Divers:! L. ) is not bad for horses row crops likely multifactorial its use as pasture! Lw, johnson B, Hietala SK, Galey FD and Gillam D: 1992 or! Crop mixture with cereals and or peas not available, horse owners may have to choose from traditional! And sainfoin at a similar vegetative stage found in cattle, vetch-associated disease is fairly rare horses... Up to 3 feet long viney winter annual with stems 4-6 feet in length, hairy! The nutritive value of common vetch are similar to hairy vetch did not do well... Or pasture some horses, grazing hairy vetch is an annual or biennial legume, attaining a height of in. Galey FD: 1992 sp ) cut in the first year, the hairy vetch a... Genetic predisposition is also suggested because vetch-associated systemic granulomatous disease in a dense one-sided spike, violet! Generation farmer ) choose from less traditional hay types, 186 companion crop that provides structural for. Much as 110 lbs usually have mild disease, but can still be affected!

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