Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau.|Potgieter, D.J. King of the Zulus during the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879, Cetshwayo experienced defeat, imprisonment and restoration at the hands of the British Empire. He was subsequently sent into exile. Without the full backing of the British parliament, Frere went ahead with his war plans. King Cetshwayo District Municipality launched the Nkandla Vutshini SSA2 reticulation project at Ward 13, Tulwane, earlier today. [Here, add your last date of access to BRANCH]. In December 1878 Frere issued an ultimatum to Cetshwayo that was designed to be impossible to satisfy: the Zulu were, among other things, to dismantle their “military system” within 30 days. The situation was finally alleviated when the British annexed the South African Republic in April 1877. In the past century King Cetshwayo's 'place in history' has been revised and, indeed, transformed by a succession of ideological and cultural currents flowing through the mainstream of South Africa's historical literature. At time of his birth, Shaka Zulu was wielding a very powerful command of the Zulu nation. The last king of the independent Zulu nation from 1872-1879, Mlambongwenya, near Eshowe, Zululand (now KwaZulu Natal), Biography of Cetshwayo kaMpande, the last king of an independent Zulu nation (1872-1879), Cetshwayo kaMpaande in Zulu Literature by N.N. Google books online.|Wallis, F. (2000). He was born in 1826, a very troubled period in the history of the Zulu kingdom. (eds) (1970). Extension of Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net. Web. Cetshwayo, also spelled Cetewayo, (born c. 1826, near Eshowe, Zululand [now in South Africa]—died Feb. 8, 1884, Eshowe), last great king of the independent Zulus (reigned 1872–79), whose strong military leadership and political acumen restored the power and prestige of the Zulu nation, which had declined during the reign of his father, Mpande (Panda). In July 1882 Cetshwayo was permitted to travel to the United Kingdom to seek support from British politicians for the restoration of the Zulu monarchy. However, through incompetence and overconfidence they had a column destroyed at Isandhlwana by the Zulu later that month (see Battles of Isandhlwana and Rorke’s Drift). As expected, the ultimatum was not met, and in January 1879 the British attacked Zululand. That same year, Cetshwayo sought out the Colonial hunter-traders who he had fought against at Ndondakusuka. By the mid-1850s Cetshwayo was head of a young Zulu group known as the Usuthu. Canonici and T.T. In the ensuing battle of Ndondakusuka, Mpande backed Mbuyazi, who was also supported by John Dunn. However, for the next 15 years Cetshwayo seemed to control the Zulu nation, he reenergized the amabutho system and tried to stem the diffusion of power away from the crown and out to the izikhulu (territorial chiefs). Siedzibą administracyjną dystryktu jest Richards Bay. Cetshwayo’s father, Mpande, was Shaka Zulu’s half brother. Standard Encyclopedia of Southern Africa, Cape Town: NASOU, v. 7, p. 626. 1826-1884) was the last independent Zulu king, whose reign ended in war against the British and in the collapse of Zulu unity. Cetshwayo kaMpande (1826-8 February 1884) was King of the Zulu Kingdom from 1873 to 1879, succeeding Mpande and preceding Dinuzulu kaCetshwayo. Drought and famine hit the Zulu nation in the summer of 1852–3 and various factions looked towards civil war as an opportunity to gain cattle. Later he was allowed to travel to London and met Queen Victoria, who permitted him to return to South Africa to rule a portion of the former Zulu kingdom in 1883. Cetshwayo (ca. The arrival in March 1877 of Sir Bartle Frere, British High Commissioner for South Africa and Commander-in-Chief of all British forces, brought a new threat to Zulu independence. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Cetshwayo, South African History Online - Biography of Cetshwayo, Cetshwayo - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Cetshwayo - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Cetshwayo, also spelled Cetewayo, (born c. 1826, near Eshowe, Zululand [now in South Africa]—died Feb. 8, 1884, Eshowe), last great king of the independent Zulus (reigned 1872–79), whose strong military leadership and political acumen restored the power and prestige of the Zulu nation, which had declined during the reign of his father, Mpande (Panda). During a Zulu civil war in 1856, Cetshwayo’s Usuthu force defeated his rival and brother Mbuyazwe’s Gqoza group in a violent encounter at the Battle of Ndondakasuka (near the lower Tugela River). The letter gives Cetshwayo's version of the war and his objections to being exiled. King Cetshwayo is een district in Zuid-Afrika. As British intentions became clear, Cetshwayo, eager to avoid the slightest hint of provocation, withdrew his army to well behind the border. Updates? Cetshwayo was a nephew of the first two Zulu kings, Shaka and Dingane. Cetshwayo’s grave, in the Nkandla forest, is considered sacred and is guarded by the Zulu. On this video I speak about the history of my Great grandfather's Father King Cetshwayo, son of King Mpande and King Mpande was the younger brother of King Shaka. In 1875 Boers flooded across into Zululand, claiming land south of the Phongola River as well as attempting to tax Zulu homesteads in the north-west. Sy naam is ook getranslitereer as Cetawayo, Cetewayo, Cetywajo en Ketchwayo en is Zoeloe vir "die belasterde een". After his death Cetshwayo came to the throne and an official coronation ceremony took place the following year. Almost all Mbuyazi's followers were massacred in the aftermath of the battle, including five of Cetshwayo's own brothers. He was met at Port Durnford in January by Shepstone who arranged the details of his restoration, but he was not permitted an army to defend his somewhat reduced 'nation' – part of the arrangement was that the north of Zululand was to be put under the control of Zibhebhu kaMaphitha. The extra territory extended from Rorke’s Drift on the Buffalo River to a point on the Pongola River. Utrecht expanded and this new border was officially marked in 1864. Zulu King Cetshwayo Zululand News – General Background. In 1857 Cetshwayo and Mpanda came to terms: Cetshwayo would have effective control of the nation whilst Mapande would retain 'ultimate' authority and the title of king. The General public can download the App, and Municipal account holders need to register before accessing Account info, ID Number and Water account. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). When his father, Mpande, displaced Dingane in 1840, Cetshwayo was brought into the line of immediate royal succession. bUniversity of Natal. He tried to reclaim the land nearly causing a war as a Zulu army under Cetshwayo and a Boer commando under Paul Kruger positioned themselves along the border between Utrecht and Zululand. The first item is a survey of Zulu history, including the events leading to the war of 1879. A Zulu King Speaks: Statements Made by Cetshwayo KaMpande on the History and Customs of His People Volume 3 of Killie Campbell Africana Library, Reprint series Pietermaritzburg. Location The King Cetshwayo District (KCD) with its … Die King Cetshwayo-distriksmunisipaliteit (voorheen uThungulu-distriksmunisipaliteit)) is een van die 10 distriksmunisipaliteite van KwaZulu-Natal.Die setel van die munisipaliteit is in Richardsbaai.Die meeste inwoners in die munisipale gebied is Zoeloesprekend.Die munisipaliteit se kode is DC28. Mpande’s forces were defeated by Shoshangane’s force and he was forced to retreat. In 1877 the British annexed the Boer republic of Transvaal, an event that fostered a drive to federate the southern African white colonies and to destroy the autonomy of the independent southern African kingdoms. tReprint series, vno. Cetshwayo. Conflict became inevitable when Mbuyazi and his supporters, the iziGqoza, moved to their lands just north of the Thukela River, clearing the area of Cetshwayo's supporters. Mpande had announced Cetshwayo as his heir shortly before becoming king, this was at an unusually early stage – Mpande even took the step of introducing Cetshwayo to the Boer Volksraad at Pietermaritzburg in 1839. Mpande was often viewed as a weak man in comparison to his contemporaries as a result and Cetshwayo began gaining influence over the Zulu people. He was imprisoned and sent into exile in the Cape. Fearing that the same fate might befall him, he moved to Engakavini where Cetshwayo grew up. The graves of King Malandela and Cetshwayo are at Nkandla. At time of his birth, Shaka Zulu was wielding a very powerful command of the Zulu nation. The British Secretary for Native Affairs in Natal, Theophilus Shepstone, encouraged Cetshwayo to proclaim his loyalty to his father, and in 1865 Mpande and Cetshwayo were reconciled and in 1857 Cetshwayo and Mpanda came to terms: Cetshwayo would have effective control of the nation whilst Mpande would retain 'ultimate' authority and the title of king. Cetshwayo was a son of Zulu king Mpande and Queen Ngqumbazi, half-nephew of Zulu king Shaka and grandson of Senzangakhona kaJama. In 1869 the Lieutenant Governor of the Colony of Natal, Sir Anthony Musgrave, was called in to solve the argument between the two groups, but he failed to do so. In 1856 he defeated and killed in battle his younger brother Mbuyazi, Mpande's favorite, at the battle of Ndondakusukaand became the effective ruler of the Zulu people. When his father, Mpande, displaced Dingane in 1840, Cetshwayo was brought into the line of immediate royal succession. Cetshwayo’s father, Mpande, was Shaka Zulu’s half brother. He was prevented from conducting a post mortem inquiry into the King’s cause of death by the relatives of the King when he told them that the procedure of this inquiry would involve dissecting his body. Mpande had a third son, Umtonga (older than Cetshwayo). His name has been transliterated as Cetawayo, Cetewayo, Cetywajo and Ketchwayo. The App will allocate unique reference numbers for all your logged cases… Shaka Zulu was in conflict with Shoshangane, a leader of a breakaway faction that had fled the Zulu kingdom and had established their kingdom near Delagoa Bay. On his retreat he learned about the assassination of the King Shaka by Dingaan, also half brother to Shaka. Whilst Cetshwayo and his 15-year old heir, Dinizulu, were able to escape the capital of oNdini and hide out in the Nkandla forest, the uSuthu leadership was decimated. The British recovered from their defeat and later reached Ulundi (the capital of Zululand), seizing and burning it in July of that year; this was followed by Cetshwayo’s capture in August and his subsequent exile to Cape Town. Cetshwayo returned to Ulundi in January 1883, and, although he was welcomed by his Usuthu supporters, Zibhebhu and his Mandlakazi supporters prepared for civil war. Cetshwayo was born about 1832. Stories from that time regarding his huge size vary, saying he stood at least between 6 feet 6 inches tall (198 cm) and 6 feet … (unknown). Gemeenten in het district [4] [ bewerken | brontekst bewerken ] 1. Further Reading on Cetshwayo. His visit to London in 1882, during which he stayed at 18 Melbury Road in Holland Park and met Queen Victoria and the Prime Minister, William Ewart Gladstone , was a significant episode in his dramatic story. But his prospects remained uncertain, for although the eldest son of Mpande's first wife, he was closely matched in age by a half brother, Mbulazi, the eldest son of Mpande's more favored second wife. From Malandela to Shaka, to Dingane and Cetshwayo, Nkandla has been at the centre stage of the Zulu nation’s history. After his victory, Cetshwayo was widely regarded as the de facto heir to Mpande, and from about 1861, as his father aged, Cetshwayo effectively ruled Zululand. It should be supplemented by Donald R. Morris, The Washing of the Spears (1965). Omissions? Several thousand warriors were sent to the border and the Boers eventually retreated. Mpande became worried that Cetshwayo was gaining too much influence and began to favour Mbuyazi, son of his most beloved wife. Mpande tried to prevent Cetshwayo from threatening his power, and he again appealed to both the British and the Afrikaners for support. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. His sovereignty was also recognized by the neighbouring British administration, which controlled the colony of Natal to the immediate south of the Zulu kingdom. His father declared him his successor very early on in life, which was unusual for a King to do. Cetshwayo was depicted as a military despot barely able to hold back his warriors from attacking Natal, and the Zulu kingdom as a steam engine with a stuck safety valve about to explode. Although Cetshwayo escaped from oNdini, he was soon captured in the Ngome Forest by British dragoons. Jan 23, 2017 - Cetshwayo’s place of birth was his father’s (Mpande) kraal of Mlambongwenya, near Eshowe. He was born in 1826, a very troubled period in the history of the Zulu kingdom. WORKS CITED. africanhistory.about.com, last accessed 7 January 2009|Cohen, Y.A. King Cetshwayo ligt in de provincie KwaZoeloe-Natal en telt 907.519 inwoners [3] . Mandlakazi raids into the northern parts of the dwindling area under Cetshwayo’s control culminated in a Mandlakazi attack on Ulundi and the final defeat of Cetshwayo’s Usuthu supporters on July 21, 1883; it is to this, known as the second Battle of Ulundi, that modern historians date the demise of the Zulu kingdom. King Cetshwayo’s place of birth was his father’s (Mpande) kraal of Mlambongwenya, near Eshowe. Cetshwayo distinguished himself early in life, taking part in the 1838 Zulu attempt to evict the invading Boers from Natal, and in the early 1850s he was involved in fighting between the Zulu and the Swazi for control of the Pongola region. Binns, C.T. King Cetshwayo District Municipality (formerly Uthungulu District Municipality [4]) is one of the 11 district municipalities ("districts") of KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa.The seat of the district is Richards Bay.The majority of its 885 944 people speak Zulu (2001 Census).The district code is DC28. Cetshwayo's body was returned to the Nkandla Forest for burial, and the war between his uSuthu and Zibhebhu continued. King Cetshwayo was born in 1826 to Mpande who was King Shaka's half-brother. Cetshwayo was escorted to Eshowe by Henry Francis Fynn jr, the British Resident in Zululand, on the 15 October 1883. Cetshwayo fled to the British Zulu Native Reserve, where he later died at the British administrative centre of Eshowe in February 1884. In a bloody battle in 1856, Cetshwayo defeated and killed his younger brother Mbuyazi, and then murdered several other siblings to effectively become heir to the throne. After his father’s death in 1872, Cetshwayo’s position as ruler was formalized. bKillie Campbell Africana Library, Durban. King Cetshwayo was an intelligent, disciplined man, a strong military leader with political savvy. King Cetshwayo was born to Mpande, who was King Shaka’s half brother in 1826. In view of the evidence mentioned above (p. 257) that such leaks were usually not accidental, it may be that the impi was intended as nothing more than a gesture to the favourite assuring him of the king's continued esteem. Cetshwayo and Mbuyazi became rivals. King Cetshwayo (voorheen uThungulu) is een district in Zuid-Afrika. Altick, Richard Daniel. This source consists of three documents which were dictated by Cetshwayo, the Zulu king, while he was a prisoner in exile. Their campaign centred on the reluctance of the Zulu to work in the British colonies near Zululand and on an alleged Zulu military threat to the colony of Natal. Sir Frere orchestrated a campaign to annex the Zulu kingdom even though British policy at the time was to avoid war with the Zulus. As a result, the doctor certified the cause of death as “syncope, the result of disease of the heart” (Binns, 1963). Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. The southern part of Zululand between the Tugela and Mhlatuze rivers was annexed by Britain as the Zulu Native Reserve. Cetshwayo kaMpande (circa 1826 – 8 Februarie 1884) was die koning van die Zoeloenasie van 1872 tot 1879 en die leier van die Zoeloes tydens die Anglo-Zoeloe-oorlog. After Mpande’s death in 1872, he reconstructed and regenerated the Zulu army and had continual border disputes with the Boers in the west and the English in the South. By March 1883 Zibhebhu was moving against Cetshwayo's supporters in his assigned northern territory and Cetshwayo's uSuthu marched against him. In 1856 he defeated and killed in battle his younger brother Mbuyazi, Mpande's favorite, at the Battle of Ndondakusuka. 2.2. et al. (1963). As absolute ruler of a rigidly disciplined army of 40,000 men, Cetshwayo was considered a threat to British colonial interests; the Anglo-Zulu War (1879) and subsequent destruction of Zulu power removed that threat. King Cetshwayo was born in 1826 to Mpande who was King Shaka's half-brother. On 11 December 1878, under the flimsy pretext of a few minor border incursions into Natal by Cetshwayo's followers, the Zulu were given an impossible ultimatum that they should disarm and Cetshwayo should forsake his sovereignty. But Cetshwayo dramatically defeated his brother on the banks of the Tugela River in 1856. As Cetshwayo grew older, he began to undermine his father’s authority and assumed control of the kingdom. The British partitioned the now-defeated Zululand between themselves and Zulu enemies of Cetshwayo, particularly Hamu in the northwest and Zibhebhu (of the Mandlakazi group) in the northeast. Mpande was sent to demand tribute and annex the newly established kingdom into the Zulu Kingdom. Phone: 035 799 2500 Cele (Alternation), 1998. Permission was granted, but the ensuing plan ensured the permanent emasculation of the monarchy. Dino Franco Felluga. Cetshwayo's son Dinizulu, as heir to the throne, was proclaimed king on 20 May 1884. The British took over preexisting Boer claims to parts of western Zululand, and in early 1878 Sir Theophilus Shepstone, the Transvaal administrator, and Sir Bartle Frere, the high commissioner of the Cape (see Cape of Good Hope), began a propaganda campaign against Cetshwayo and the Zulu. King Cetshwayo ligt in de provincie KwaZoeloe-Natal en telt 907.519 inwoners[3]. The second item is a letter to Sir Hercules Robinson, governor of the Cape Colony. King Cetshwayo rejected the ultimatum and war broke out between the two nations. ‎To connect to King Cetshwayo District Municipality, a Water Services Authority. Corrections? Tallie, T. J.. “On Zulu King Cetshwayo kaMpande’s Visit to London, August 1882.” BRANCH: Britain, Representation and Nineteenth-Century History. The doctor who examined him to determine the cause of death suspected that he was poisoned as he seemed in good health that very morning; he was seen taking his usual early morning walk. On the afternoon of 8 February 1884 Cetshwayo died. His father declared him his successor very early on in life, which was unusual for a King to do. The King Cetshwayo District Municipality (previously uThungulu District Municipality) is a Category C municipality and is located in the north-eastern region of the KwaZulu-Natal Province. Jun 15, 2017 - Cetshwayo kaMpande was the king[a] of the Zulu Kingdom from 1873 to 1879 and its leader during the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879. He was born in 1826, a very troubled period in the history of the Zulu kingdom. Cetshwayo was a nephew of the first two Zulu kings, Shaka and Dingane. Man in adaptation: the cultural present (2nd ed). The uSuthu were defeated and driven into Transvaal and back south to oNdini. 121 A further twist to the story is that Cetshwayo got wind of the plot and tipped the nephew off, so that in the event he escaped death and secured his inheritance. 3 Issue 3 of Reprint series: Author: Cetewayo (King of Zululand) Editors During his reign Mpande was faced with both British and Afrikaner settlers on his borders, and he continuously tried not to alienate either party, ceding some of the Zulu Kingdom’s land. The uMhlathuze Municipality includes the port of Richards Bay, which handles the greatest volume of cargo of any port in Africa and the largest percentage of cargo of any South African port. The Last Zulu King: The Life and Death of Cetshwayo, London: Longman|Biography of Cetshwayo kaMpande, the last king of an independent Zulu nation (1872-1879). The civil war between Cetshwayo and Zibhebhu ranged across the Mahlabathini plain and the uSuthu was once again defeated. At time of his birth, Shaka Zulu was wielding a very powerful command of the Zulu nation. He famously led the Zulu nation to victory against the British in the Battle of Isandlwana, but was defeated and exiled following that war. Cetshwayo also began to see him as a threat and chased him into Utrecht (land that Mpande had ceded in 1854) in 1861. The official cause of his sudden death was given as a heart attack, though the Zulu believed he had been poisoned. He did not ascend to the throne, however, as his father was still alive. C. T. Binns, The Last Zulu King: The Life and Death of Cetshwayo (1963), is an interesting and sympathetic, but somewhat inadequately researched, biography. King Cetshwayo, the last great ruler of Zululand, is captured by the British following his defeat in the British-Zulu War. Killed in battle his younger brother Mbuyazi, son of his birth, Shaka Zulu s... Including the events leading to the throne, was proclaimed king on 20 May 1884 as heir to British! 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